Installation of batteries, Operation, Temperatures – Ironclad Automobile Parts User Manual
Page 4: Fast charging and opportunity charging procedures
4. Give the battery an equalizing charge but keep resetting
the charger to the equalize position until the specific gravities
remain constant for a period of three hours. At no time should
battery temperature be allowed to exceed 110°F (43°C).
5. At the completion of the charge, the specific gravities of all
cells corrected to 77°F (25°C) should be as specified on the
battery nameplate or shown in Table 3. If the specific gravity is
higher, remove some electrolyte and replace with water; if
lower, remove some electrolyte and replace with higher specific
gravity electrolyte. Any specific gravity adjustments should be
made with the charger on equalize in order to mix the
electrolyte properly. Removed electrolyte must be disposed of in
strict accordance with all environmental regulations.
ELECTROLYTE CONTAINS SULFURIC ACID WHICH CAN
CAUSE BURNS AND IS CORROSIVE.
6. Upon completion of the above steps, apply a standard vent
cap to all cells.
8. INSTALLATION OF
a. The battery compartment in the vehicle should be ventilated
and designed in a manner to keep out water, oil, dirt and other
foreign matter. Drainage holes should be located in the floor of
the battery compartment. Consult with your vehicle dealer if
any question arises.
b. When lifting the battery, use an EnerSys PRO Series
Adjustable Lifting Beam which exerts a vertical pull on the
lifting tabs only.
c. The battery should be blocked, not wedged, to allow 1/8"
minimum clearance on all sides for easy removal from the
d. During transit and storage a battery may have lost some of its
charge. Give it an equalizing charge before putting the battery in
service. (See Section 14.)
e. If any connections on the battery itself are bolted together, make
them clean and bright, using care not to remove the lead coating
from any lead-plated copper parts. Coat the surfaces to be bolted
together with No-Oxide grease. Due to vibration, handling and
heating during operation bolted connections loosen over time.
Re-tighten them at least twice yearly using an appropriately set
No intermediate “taps” or connections should be made at other
the main terminal of the battery. Any lower voltage device should
be supplied through a series resistor or from a separate source.
Any such device connected to an intermediate point of a battery
and/or overcharging the remainder can void your warranty.
TAPPING THE BATTERY SHORTENS ITS LIFE BY UP TO
f. Storage - see Section 21.
9. FAST CHARGING AND OPPORTUNITY
If a single battery is being used in a lift truck for multiple shifts or is
partially recharged during breaks, lunches, and other idle periods, it
may be in a fast charge or opportunity charge mode of operation.
Opportunity charging can be used to keep the battery’s state of
charge above 50% during the daily discharge cycle thereby allowing
the battery to maintain higher voltages during the shift and improve
truck performance. The total accumulated discharged ampere-hours
should not exceed 80% of the batteries designed capacity rating.
Discharge of more than 80% of the batteries designed capacity
rating in a 24-hour period will shorten battery life. If engaging in
opportunity charging, the battery must be returned to nameplate
specific gravity at least once per week. However, more frequent
recharges to nameplate specific gravity is desirable. Charge rates
during opportunity charging should not exceed 25 amps per 100
amps of a battery’s nameplate capacity. Under the opportunity
charging procedures outlined in this paragraph, standard battery
Fast charging is intended to extend a battery’s run-time diring a shift
or day. A typical fast charging system will provide charge rates from 25
to 50 amps per 100 amps of a battery’s nameplate capacity. Fast
charging requires special chargers that can monitor and manage
battery temperatures during charge, assure a battery is recharged to at
least 90% state of charge on a daily basis, and provide an equalizing
charge at least once per week. Also, a fast charge battery should be
designed to accept higher charge current and to manage heat that
may be created by higher charging rates. A fast charge system,
including the battery and charger, should be designed to accept no
more than 160% of the battery’s 6-hour capacity rating on a shift day.
Under fast charging procedures outlined in this paragraph, fast
charging warranties apply.
Consult your EnerSys representative to avoid problems or very short
a. Full charge gravity of a new battery will be specified on the
nameplate located on the side of the battery tray. Full charge gravity
will be affected by temperature, acid level, and battery age. If acid is
lost from overfilling, full charge gravity and capacity will be lowered.
b. Under normal conditions, only add water.
NEVER add acid or
other solutions to the cells.
c. Keep the plugs and receptacles in good condition. When
disconnecting battery from the truck or charger, pull on the receptacle
not the cable. When disconnecting from a charger, assure that the
charger is off first otherwise arcing will result. Arcing can cause battery
explosion, sulfation damage to connector contacts, and charger
a. Low Temperatures. The capacity of a storage battery is
reduced at low temperatures due to the increased viscosity
and resistance of the electrolyte. An approximation of this
reduction in capacity for batteries of these types is shown below.
Internal Temperature of Cell (°F)
This, of course, refers to the actual temperature of the cell and not
the ambient temperature. Thus a battery may be operated in quite
low ambient temperatures for short periods without the actual
battery temperature falling to a point where the capacity is seriously
curtailed. For example, batteries used in cold storage plants or
similar locations will deliver close to normal
capacity if they are
moved into warmer areas for charging and whenever not in
Low temperatures also increase the battery voltage on charge,
resulting in lower charge currents, and a longer recharge time.
Undercharging could occur unless charger adjustments are made
to compensate for it.
There is little danger of freezing of the battery electrolyte in
temperate climates unless the battery is completely discharged.
At the temperatures shown in the following table, the electrolyte
will not freeze unless the specific gravity is lower than indicated.
Freezes @ or Below
(Corrected to 77°F)