Schwinn 418P User Manual

Page 11

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Muscular Strength

The new guidelines have added resistance training since the ACSM

recognizes the increasing importance of maintaining strength as a health

benefit as we get older

. The rationale for the addition of strength training

to the guidelines is a result of a ten year follow-up study on master runners

(along with other studies). Those who continued to train aerobically without

upper body exercise maintained their body's oxygen transporting capacity

over the years, but lost about 4.5 pounds of lean body mass; those who

included strength training in their program maintained their lean body mass

along with their aerobic capacity after 10 years of aging.

The guidelines also show where consistent resistance training helps

maintain bone and muscle mass as we get older

. For women, strength training

(along with the aerobic work) may also protect against post menopausal bone

loss and osteoporosis in their later years.

The guidelines recommend that two strength training sessions per week

should be added to your workout schedule. W


recommend three sessions a

week during the of

f-season and two sessions a week for maintenance during

the in-season. The new ACSM guidelines recommend one set of eight to 12

repetitions of eight to 10 strength exercises of your major muscle groups per

session as the minimum requirement. A complete detailed strength training

program will be outlined in a later section of this book. If weights or other

resistance training devices are not available, add calisthenics to your program.


vascular F


The new statement, published in 1991, repeats the four recommendations

on duration, intensity

, frequency and various modes of aerobic activity

, with

slight changes.

The duration is now 20 to 60 minutes, versus a minimum of 15

minutes in the past.

Intensity of exercise can be determined by two methods. The first is the

familiar use of target heart rate. The guidelines state that you should aim to

work at 60 to 85 percent of your maximum heart rate (max HR = 220 - your age)

or 50 to 85 percent of your maximal oxygen capacity (determined by doing a

stress test on a bicycle ergometer or treadmill at a medical facility).

Duration is dependent upon the intensity of the activity; for those who like

to work at a lower intensity they should work out longer

. Low to moderate

intensity cycling, stepping, walking, or cross-country skiing is best for most

adults, because higher intensity workouts can lead to increased risk of injury

and it is easier to adhere to the exercise routine. Beginners can achieve a

significant training ef

fect from low intensity workouts. If you're already fit

and want to improve, gradually increase your intensity


The type of activity

, once again, should include anything that uses large

muscle groups, and is rhythmical and aerobic in nature, such as cycling or

running. Other activities could include stair climbing, cross-country skiing,

walking, etc. These activities need to be carried out three to five days per week.


raining Effect

Duration, intensity and frequency of training stimulate the aerobic training


fect. Any training done below the ACSM guidelines will not be suf


enough to give you the aerobic training ef

fect. If you are exercising more

than the recommendations, it will not significantly increase the aerobic

training ef

fect, though athletes training for competition need to exercise

more to be competitive. It is important to remember not to over do it; your

body needs adequate recovery from a hard workout.

In general, endurance training for fewer than two days per week at less

than 60 percent of maximal heart rate, for fewer than 20 minutes per day

, and

without a well-rounded resistance and flexibility program is inadequate for

developing and maintaining fitness in healthy adults. It is just that simple.

Keep in mind that the ACSM recommendations are guidelines for the

average person, not a champion athlete training for the Olympic Games.

An appropriate warm-up and cool-down, which would also include flexibility

exercises, is also recommended. While many of you will need to train with

more mileage and at a greater intensity to race competitively

, the important

factor to remember for most people is that if they follow the ACSM guidelines

of physical activity they will attain increased physical and health benefits at

the lowest risk. Below is a table outlining the guidelines (T

able 1.1).

The ACSM guidelines, if followed, can result in permanent lifestyle changes for

most individuals. The good news is that, with the right approach, exercising at

home can and should be pleasant. Y

ou can combine strength training, aerobic

exercise and flexibility activities that you enjoy and gain valuable health benefits.

Strength T


Aerobic Exercise



2 to 3 times/week

3 to 5 times/week

3 to 6 times/week


8-12 reps

60-90% of "easy"

max HR

feeling until fatigue

Stretch T


20-40 minutes

20-60 minutes

10 minutes



10 exercises

any rhythmical

10 stretches



be in total balance it is important to be flexible. While not part of the

ACSM guidelines, flexibility is important for you to perform tasks that require

reaching, twisting and turning your body

. Hip flexibility

, for example, is

important to preventing lower back pain.

Exercise and Body Composition

Body composition is an important component of health-related fitness.

Good body composition results from aerobic activity

, strength training and

proper diet.


our everyday caloric balance will determine whether you will gain or lose

weight from day-to-day

. Caloric balance refers to the dif

ference between the

calories you take in from food eaten and caloric expenditure or the amount of

energy you put out in daily activities, work or exercise.

Body weight is lost when caloric expenditure exceeds caloric intake or when

caloric intake is less than caloric expenditure. It is a known physiological fact

that one pound of fat is equal to 3500 calories of energy

. Though it is

predictable that shifts in caloric balance will be accompanied by changes in

body weight, how your body loses weight varies on the various programs you

may undertake to lose weight. For example, low calorie diets cause a


loss of water and lean body tissue, such as muscle. In contrast,

an exercise-induced negative caloric balance results in a weight loss of

primarily fat stores. If you were to add a resistant training component to

your program, you may also see a slight increase in weight due to a gain in

muscle mass, while an aerobic based program usually results in a

maintenance of muscle mass. While both approaches to weight loss are

fective, aerobic activity

is found to be very ef

fective because metabolism stays sustained for longer

periods of time and energy

. Expenditure is greater with activities that use

large muscle groups such as walking, cycling, cross-county skiing, etc.

Follow these guidelines when engaging in a weight loss program that

combines exercise and caloric restriction:

Ensure that you are consuming at least 1,200 calories per day in a balanced

diet. Y

ou need to consume calories for everyday bodily

, healthy functions.


ou should not exceed more than a 500 to 1,000 calories per day negative

caloric balance, combining both caloric restriction and exercise. This will

result in a gradual weight loss, without a loss of lean body weight (muscle).


ou should not lose more than 2 pounds per week on a diet.



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