Regulator circuit, The lm-317 integrated circuit, The negative voltage regulator – Elenco Triple Supply w/ 12.6VAC CT @ 1A User Manual

Page 4: Figure 5, Figure 6, Figure 6a

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In practice, the current through the diodes is not as shown in Figure 2C. Because
capacitor C5 has a charge after the first cycle, the diode will not conduct until the
positive AC voltage exceeds the positive charge in the capacitor. Figure 5 shows
a better picture of what the current flow looks like, assuming no loss in the diode.

It takes a few cycles for the voltage to build up on the capacitor. This depends on
the resistance of the winding and diode. After the initial start-up, there will be a
charge and discharge on the capacitor depending on the current drawn by the
output load. Remember current only flows through the diode when the anode is
more positive than the cathode. Thus, current will flow in short bursts as shown in
Figure 5C.

The DC load current may be one ampere, but the peak diode current may be three times that. Therefore, the
diode rating must be sufficient to handle the peak current. The 1N4001 has peak current rating of 10 amps.

Regulator Circuit

The regulator circuit in the Model XP-720 Power Supply consists of a LM-317 integrated circuit. This IC is
specially designed to perform the regulation function. Figure 6 shows a simplified circuit of how the LM-317 IC

Transistors Q1 and Q2 form a circuit known as a differential amplifier. Transistor Q1 base is connected to a
stable 1.5V reference voltage. The base of Q2 is connected to the regulator output circuit through a voltage
divider network. The collector of transistor Q2 is connected to a current source. This basically is a PNP
transistor biased to draw about 1mA of current. Transistor Q2 sees the current source as a very high resistor of
about 1 meg ohms. Thus, the gain of transistor Q2 is extremely high.

Transistor Q5 is called the pass transistor. It controls the current reaching the
output. Transistors Q3 and Q4 are emitter followers. Their function is to raise
the impedance of the pass transistor. Note that transistors Q2, Q3, Q4 and Q5
and resistor R1 form a close loop. Also, note that the feedback to the base of
Q2 is negative, that is, when the base of Q2 goes positive, the output at emitter
Q5 goes negative. Now if the 2V output voltage goes down because of current
drain at the output, the base of Q2 will drop forcing the collector voltage of Q2
to go higher. This will bring the output voltage back to 2V. This is the basis of
all negative feedback regulators.

The LM-317 Integrated Circuit

The LM-317 IC is basically a 1.25V regulator. To be able to vary the output
1.25 - 15V, we stack the IC on a DC voltage as shown in Figure 6A. When
VR1 equals 0, the output voltage is 1.25V as determined by the LM-317 IC.
Note that the voltage across R1 is always 1.25V. When R1 equals VR1, the
voltage across VR1 will equal the 1.25V across R1, therefore, the output
voltage will be 2.5V. When VR1 is 5 times R1, the output voltage is 6.25V. As
you can see, varying resistor VR1 will vary the voltage from 1.25V to 15V.

Another feature of the LM-317 regulator is to protect the IC against overload
and output shorts. If the IC is overloaded, the junction of an overload
transistor will overheat. A transistor will sense this overheating and shut down
transistor Q5.

The Negative Voltage Regulator

The theory of the negative voltage regulator is the same as the previously discussed positive regulator. The
basic differences is that diodes D2 and D4 are reversed, producing a negative voltage across capacitor C6.
The LM-317 IC is designed to operate from a negative supply.


Figure 5

A) Transformer


B) Voltage C1

C) Current

through diodes




Figure 6












to 1 Meg.

Figure 6A

1.25 - 15V