Elenco Same as XP720 in Kit Form User Manual

Page 17

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The LM-317 IC is basically a 1.25V regulator. To be able to vary the output
1.25 - 15V, we stack the IC on a DC voltage as shown in Figure 6A. When
VR1 equals 0, the output voltage is 1.25V as determined by the LM-317 IC.
Note that the voltage across R1 is always 1.25V. When R1 equals VR1, the
voltage across VR1 will equal the two volts across R1, therefore, the output
voltage will be 2.5V. When VR1 is 5 times R1, the output voltage is 7.5V. As
you can see, varying resistor VR1 will vary the voltage from 1.25V to 15V.

The Negative Voltage Regulator

The theory of the negative voltage regulator is the same as the previously
discussed positive regulator. The basic differences is that diodes D2 and D4 are reversed, producing a negative
voltage across capacitor C6. The LM-337 IC is designed to operate from a negative supply.

The 5 Volt Power Supply

In the previous discussion of the variable voltage regulators, the ICs can handle about 1A of current. In the
design of the 5V supply, we need 3A of current. To meet this current requirement we must add an external pass
transistor capable of delivering 3A.

Figure 7 shows a simplified 5V regulator with an external PNP pass
transistor. In this circuit, transistor Q2 is a power transistor capable of
delivering over 3A. Transistor Q2 is biased off until the LM-7805 IC
draws about .2A. When .2A is drawn by the LM-7805 IC, the voltage
drop across the 3 ohm resistor is .6V, enough to turn on transistor Q2.
Transistor Q2 takes over and delivers the current to the output. Note that
if the output voltage goes down, the LM-7805 regulator will draw more
current, forcing the output voltage back to 5V. Thus, the LM-7805
regulator controls the output voltage and keeps it at 5V.

Unfortunately, this circuit has no control of the output maximum current. If the output is shorted to ground
transistor Q2 will be overloaded and eventually be damaged. The LM-7805 IC will only draw the .2A it was
designed to handle and never heat up to turn itself off. Another transistor Q1 is added to limit maximum current.
Resistor R5 is added to sense the current in transistor Q2. When approximately 3A is drawn in transistor Q2,
the voltage drop in resistor R5 will turn on transistor Q1. This will force more current in the LM-7805 IC.
Eventually the LM-7805 IC will overheat turning itself off and thus limiting the circuit at about 3.2A.

The first .2A of current is drawn by the LM-7805 IC. The next 3A are drawn by transistor Q2. Thereafter, the
current is drawn by the LM-7805 IC until it overheats and turns itself off. This is a very effective circuit capable
of regulating the output voltage at a constant 5 volts and yet delivering over 3A of current.

AC Power Supply

The section features a 12.6VAC center tapped output. Two secondary windings from the transformer are
connected directly to the yellow binding posts. Connecting from one of the outputs to the center black binding
post will give you 6.3VAC. The maximum output current for 12.6VAC and 6.3VAC is 1A.

This concludes the discussion on the operation of the XP-720 Power Supply.

Figure 6A

1.25 - 15V




Figure 7